Posts Tagged ‘topical antioxidants’
The free-radical theory of aging (FRTA) states that organisms age because cells accumulate free radical damage over time. You may believe that you are getting enough antioxidants via diet, you may be wrong. As I learn more about the benefits of resveratrol, I am convinced that a nightly application of an effective topical resveratrol product needs to be a part of everyones skin care regimen.
What is Resveratrol?
Resveratrol is a botanical antioxidant with diverse biologic effects important to anti-aging. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic antioxidant found in over 70 plants, including berries peanuts and grapes. It protects plants from stress, UV light and certain fungal infections. You may have also heard that red wine is a good source of resvertrol, this is because it is in the skin of the grapes and as the grapes ferment the concentration of resveratrol increases.
Resveratrol is impressive because it has a dual antioxidant capacity, not only is it an exogenous antioxidant it also works to up regulate endogenous antioxidants. This means that not only does resveratrol scavenge free radicals from the environment, it also works to increase the production of the bodies own “endogenous” antioxidants
Benefits of Resveratrol
- Dual antioxidant capacity
– Preserve collagen
– Reduce skin inflammation
– Helps with skin discoloration (tyrosinase inhibitor)
– Inhibits non-melanoma skin cancer formation, when applied topically
– Positive effect on extrinsic and intrinsic skin aging
– Works synergistically with antioxidants such as vitamin E
– Increased epidermal and dermal skin density ( with topical Resveratrol BE )
– Increased Elasticity ( with topical Resveratrol BE )
Intrinsic and Extrinsic: What you need to know about free radicals
A free radical is any unstable atom or molecule that is missing an electron. They stabilize by steeling an electron from another molecule, which then becomes becomes another free radical, creating a chain reaction. Free radicals can be intrinsic (natural) or extrinsic (environmental). Extrinsic free radicals (from your environment) can be ingested, inhaled or absorbed into the body. UV rays, air pollution, tobacco smoke, herbicides, and pesticides are all forms of free radicals. Intrinsic free radicals (natural) occur constantly when our body produces free radicals as by-products of a basic metabolic process called oxidation. Immune cells will also release free radicals in order to fight invading viruses and bacteria.
Exogenous and Endogenous: What you need to know about antioxidants
Exogenous antioxidants are obtained from an outside source such as diet or topical applications, compared to Endogenous antioxidants which are made by the body. The body makes five types of endogenous antioxidants: superoxide dismatuse (SOD), alpha lipoic acid (ALA), coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), catalase and glutathione peroxidase. The body is incapable of producing enough endogenous antioxidants to combat free radicals on their own, so it is essential to get additional (exogenous) antioxidants through diet. We can increase exogenous antioxidants by eating a healthy diet, but this does not exactly increase endogenous antioxidants. Unfortunately, as we age the body produces less endogenous antioxidants. Evidence suggests that a decrease in endogenous antioxidants plays a role in both extrinsic (environmental) and intrinsic (natural) aging, leading to premature aging. So…this is where resvertrol comes in to play. Resveratrol helps to up regulate endogenous antioxidants, including superoxide dismatuse (SOD), catalase and glutathione.
Skin aging is effected by the depletion of naturally occurring (endogenous) antioxidants. Another driving factor in skin aging is ROS (reactive oxygen species), which can result from environmental insults such as sun exposure as well as the disturbances in mitochondrial function. Increased ROS can directly damage cell membranes, proteins, DNA as well as turning on the cellular and molecular mechanisms that accelerate aging. This means a break down of collagen, less collagen production and increased inflammation. Studies show that resveratrol down regulates this process, helping to preserve collagen and reduce skin inflammation.
Learn More “Topical Antioxidants”
Topical Resveratrol: Benefits and Challenges
Orally ingested resveratrol is rapidly metabolized, leaving only a small fraction to reach tissues. Resveratrol ingested via diet or supplements is not the most effective way to deliver it to the skin, topical applications are more promising. Topical resveratrol is applied directly to the targeted area allowing skin tissue to attain a therapeutic concentration.
The first challenge with topical resveratrol is that it is photosensitive, so it must be protected by a broad-spectrum sunblock or used exclusively at night. The second challenge is that it has a low water solubility, making it hard to get high concentrations of pure resveratrol in a topical solution. This explains why most topical products have less than 1% of pure resveratrol. Finally, the transport of resveratrol to the skin is limited by the type of vehicle used. It is essential that the resveratrol be able to escape from its vehicle and be able to penetrate the initial barrier.
Renowned for their topical antioxidant serums, it is no surprise that Skin Ceuticals would overcome the obstacles of topical resveratrol. Skin Ceuticals has created “Resveratrol BE” with a maximized concentration of 1% pure stabilized resveratrol in a synergistic formulation with 0.5% baicalin and vitamin E for enhanced efficacy. Skin Ceuticals advanced research labs have formulated the resveratrol in a delivery system of hydrotopes which allow the resveratrol to penetrate the skin.
How To Use Topical Resveratrol
Remember resveratrol works synergistically with other antioxidants and it is degraded by UV rays. I recommended that in the morning you apply a topical antioxidant such as CE Ferulic along with broad spectrum sunblock. Apply topical Resveratrol BE at night before any moisturizer or creams. If you use tretinoin (Retin-A), apply the tretinoin first then the resveratrol.
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Reference “Resveratrol: A Unique Antioxidant Offering a Multi-Mechanistic Approach for Treating Aging Skin”
Journal Of Drugs In Dermatology, December 2013. Volume 12. Issue 12
You invest in quality skin care products with the best intentions, but do you know how to use them correctly? It can be a difficult enough to choose skin care products that are effective and appropriate for your skin, knowing how to use them correctly only adds to the challenge.
Do I use this every day? Do I use this in the morning, at night or both. In what order do I apply my products? Should I use these products together? With so many questions about using skin products, I thought it was a good idea to share a few basic guidelines. There is such a huge variety of skin products, not to mention a variety of skin type, it would be impossible to list every possible regimen. This is only a generic guideline. I recommend consulting with a skin professional to customize a skin care regimen appropriate for your
Layering skin care products in order
To maximize the benefits of your skin care products you need to use them in proper order. Not everyone will use all of these products, simply use them in order as they apply to you. In general you will use skin products in order of consistency, lightest to heaviest. Starting with cleanser, followed by any liquids such as a toner or a topical antibiotic. After cleansing and toning you will apply any serums, followed by any gel products, then creams and sunscreen is the last thing you apply.
Scrubs may be used before or after a cleanser. Personally, I usually use a scrub first and then use a cleanser to ensure that all the little scrub granules are removed
A facial masque is used after cleansing. Depending on the mask you may cleanse it off, wipe it off or rinse it off. Follow the directions on the label. If you are using a facial scrub, you should use the scrub first and then follow with a mask. Be cautious of using a scrub and a mask together, if either product has active ingredients such as glycolic or salicylic acid. Most over the counter products are not very strong, however combing them may cause some irritation. After removing the mask you may use serums, gels and creams.
Sunscreen is the most important thing you will apply to your skin. You should choose your sun protection responsibly and use it religiously. I do not recommend using moisturizers or cosmetics with SPF ( with a few exceptions). The sun protection in most of these products do not provide sufficient sun protection and even if they did you probably would not apply enough of the product to adequately protect your skin, so you will still need to use a actual sunscreen. Some of the ingredients used in sunscreen do not play well together and if you use a moisturizer with an ingredient that doesn’t work well with an ingredient in your sunblock, they may reduce the protection you are getting.
When to use skin products, AM/ PM or both.
Toner AM/ PM
Topical antibiotics AM /PM. ( as needed)
Hydroquinine products AM / PM
Exfoliants PM (usually)
Peptides AM or PM
Moisturizers AM and/ or PM
Sunscreen AM Every day! Reapply every two hours with extended sun exposure.
You should cleanse your face in the morning and again before you go to bed. It is also a good idea to cleanse after sweating, this is especially important for young athletes with acne. Although most cleansers are fine to use twice a day, there are some cleansers that should be used only once a day. Cleansers with active ingredients such as salicylic acid, glycolic acid or benzoyl peroxide may cause irritation if used twice a day. If you are using an “active” cleanser at night use a basic cleanser in the morning or vice versa.
Most toners can be used twice a day, however there are some exceptions. If you are using a product with an active ingredient such as glycolic acid, salicylic acid or Benzoyl peroxide you may want to limit use to one time a day. This will depend a lot on the strength of the product and what other skin products you are using.
Topical antibiotics should be applied to clean, dry skin. Topical antibiotics can be drying if used excessively, I usually suggest to use them as needed. If you have very oily skin with active inflamed acne, you can probably tolerate using a topical antibiotic twice a day. I also suggest using the topical antibiotic after exercising or anything that causes you to sweat. Athletes should cleanse face and shower as soon as possibly, then apply the topical antibiotic.
Topical antioxidants should be used during the day to help combat the many free radicles we encounter during the day. Topical Vitamin-C also helps prevent sun damage. Some antioxidants are also believed to enhance the effectiveness of sun screan.
There are many, many skin care products that contain antioxidants, however those found in serums usually penetrate the best. A serum that contains at least 10% L-ascorbic acid is ideal. Although L-ascorbic is thought to be the most important of topical antioxidants, I believe that variety is important. No single antioxidant works against all free radicals and they work well when paired up. For this reason you may choose to use a Vitamin-C serum and another topical antioxidant product such as Prevage MD.
If you are using a copper peptide, their are some considerations. If you use tretinoin (Retin-A) at night, you may want to use copper peptide during the day. Copper peptides can make you topical Vitamin-C inactive, so if you use a topical Vitamin C, use the copper peptide at night or alternate days. Copper peptides act as an antioxidant and stimulate collagen synthesis in moderate use, however they can have an opposite effect if used in excess.
When I say to exfoliants, I am referring to skin care products that contain exfoliating agents such as Tretinoin or AHA’s. Exfoliants should be used at night, however you may use one exfoliant at night and another in the morning. An example would be using Tretinoin (Retin-A) at night and Obagi Exfoderm in the morning.
How you use a moisturizer will depend on your skin and the product it’s self. In general I do not put a huge emphasis on moisturizers. I personaly find the benefit of moisturizers to be mostly temporary and cosmetic, however there are some exceptions. The exceptions include sunburned or compromised skin, women post menopause, certain medical conditions, and those under going cancer treatment. If you have recently had a chemical peel or laser treatment, it is usually recommended to use a moisturizer several times a day. I recommend using a moisturizer during the day to benefit from it’s cosmetic effect.
Skin care products you should not use together
Antioxidants and Benzoyl Peroxide
Benzoyl Peroxide products work by introducing oxygen into the skin to inhibit bacteria proliferation. The oxygen will oxidize other skin care products such as topical antioxidant. When you use a peroxide product with an an antioxidant, they essentially cancel each other out.
Benzoyal Peroxide & Hydroquinone
Using hydroquinone together with benzoyl peroxide, hydrogen peroxide, or other peroxide products may cause a temporary staining of your skin. This staining can usually be removed by cleansing the skin.
Copper Peptide & Vitamin – C
Copper Peptides can inactivate topical Vitamin C. If you use both products, use the Vitamin C during the day and the Copper peptide at night or alternate days.
Avobenzone and Zinc Oxide
The three ingredients that are approved by the FDA to protect against UVA rays are avobenzone, titanium dioxide, and zinc oxide. You should always choose a sunscreen that contains at least one of the three ingredients. The challenge is that Avobenzone has been shown to degrade other sunscreen ingredients such as oxybenzone, octinoxate, zinc oxide and titanium dioxide. I am not sure if the United States even permits the combination of Avobenzone and physical sunscreens in skin products. (I have been trying to confirm if this is still true)
Avobenzone and Mineral Makeup
Mineral makeup is made with physical sunscreens and is not compatible with Avobenzone.
Skin care products you should use together
Cleanser and Clarisonic Cleansing Brush
Many people will spend less than 20 seconds cleansing their face, leaving behind makeup, dirt and oil. The Clarisonic Cleansing Brush uses sonic frequency of more than 300 movements per second to deep clean the skin and is set on a 60 second timer per use. Cleansing with the Clarisonic brush will remove 6x more makeup and 2x more dirt and oil than cleansing alone.
Vitamin C and Sunscreen
Using a topical Vitamin-C product can help enhance the benefits of your sunscreen. Topical Vitamin C is considered a photoprotectant. A photoprotectant does not work the same way as sunscreen, instead it protects skin from both UVA and UVB, by neutralizing the UV rays. When choosing a topical Vitamin C be sure to select a product with L ascorbic acid of 10% or more.
Hydroquinine and Tretinoin (Retin-A)
Hydroquinone and Tretinoin work synergistically. Both Hydroquinone and Tretinoin are very effective on their own, when you combine them you will enhance the effectiveness of both products.
Tretinoin and AHA’s
Tretinoin (Retin-A) can be used with mild AHA’s. A good example would be, the Obagi Nu-Derm system involves using Tretinoin at night and Exfoderm or Exfoderm Forte in the morning. Exfoderm uses a very mild Phytic acid and the Exfoderm Forte uses glycolic acid. Care should be taken when combining tretinoin with AHA’s. Tretinoin is a medical strength product and should be used under the supervision of a skin professional
Mineral Makeup and Physical Sunscreen
Although you should avoid using a chemical sunscreen with mineral makeup, you can use a physical sunscreen with a mineral makeup. Mineral makeup is made with Titanium Dioxide and Zinc Oxide, so it will be compatible with any physical sunscreen you use.
Mineral Makeup with Tretinoin (Retin-A)
Tretinoin causes the skin to be dry and flakey. Most traditional makeup will only enhance the flaking. Just try to use liquid makeup on flakey peeling skin, it’s not pretty. Most powders are made with talk, which is a cheep filler and it will cause the skin to be more dry. True mineral makeup does not contain any talc. Mineral makeup also has anti-inflammatory properties that can help reduce the redness experienced with the use of tretinoin. Another benefit is that it is a physical sunscreen, it will not irritate sensitive skin and is easy to reapply through out the day.
The content provide in this post is intended to be informative and does not replace medical or professional treatment.
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Rosacea is primarily a facial vascular disorder in which blood vessels are functionally and structurally abnormal. Currently rosacea can’t be cured, however it can be effectively treated and controlled. Rosacea is a progressive skin disorder, that should be treated when symptoms first begin. Treatment should be aimed at treating the underlying vascular issues associated with rosacea. Vascular Lasers and IPL treatments are extremely effective at treating existing redness and broken blood vessels. In addition to avoiding rosacea triggers, topical products can be used to prevent flushing and further damage that can accelerate the progression of the disorder.
Laser and IPL Therapy
Both Laser and IPL therapy are very effective at treating telangiectasia (broken blood vessels), generalized redness and flushing. IPL therapy can also be enhanced with Levulan to get the added benefit of treating acne, rosacea papules and pustuals.
Lasers that are absorbed well by hemoglobin are used to treat vascular concerns. The laser energy is absorbed by the blood vessel and creates heat within the vessel which damages the vessel wall and permenatly closes that vessel. The treated vessels are then absorbed by the body. Although there isn’t a cure for rosacea, studies show that laser treatment can permantly remove damaged facial blood vessels and with repeated treatment blood vessels will not always be created to replace the old vessel. Facial blood vessels treated with lasers are sometimes replaced with connective tissue. This is good news, because this will permently reduce the number of blood vessels in the face, near to the level of vessels found in healthy skin.
Lasers have a single wavelength that work at a very specific depth. So any idividual laser has it’s limitations. KTP 532 nm and Pulsed Dye: 577 -585nm lasers are well absorbed by hemoglobin and are very effective at treating superfical blood vessels in the face, while Nd:YAG 1064nm lasers are also well absorbed by hemoglobin, they are effective at treating vessels that are located deeper in the skin.
Intese Pulsed Light (IPL)
IPL skin treatments are known by many names including Fotofacial, Photofacial, Photoderm and Photo rejuvenation. Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) differs from lasers because IPL uses a wide spectrum of wavelengths at the same time (for example: 500nm — 1200nm) that can target any chromophore in that range, while lasers have a single wavelength. You can think of the laser like a sniper that can precisely hit a single target with one shot, and IPL is like a grenade that hits several targets at once. IPL uses special cut-off filters that can be selected to target chromophors in a certain range within the skin. When treating rosacea or any vascular concern, the intended target is hemoglobin. The advantage IPL treatments have over laser treatments is that IPL can target vessels at different depths.
Combined Laser and IPL Therapy
Best results are achieved when you combine IPL and Laser treatments. IPL and Laser treatments can be done independently, however combining technologies at the same treatment time will provide a better result. This type of treatment is fairly aggressive and should only be done by someone that is very experienced in combining these technologies.
Oral and Topical Products
Topical Metronidazole Gel
Metronidazole is topical agent used to treat rosacea, available only by prescription. The primary action of Metronidazole is anti-inflamatory. Metronidazole is effective at reducing papules and pustules and has a fairly minimal effect at reducing inflammation. Unfortunately, it isn’t effective for treating broken blood vessels or flushing.
Antibiotics have long been used to treat rosacea, however they work primarily through their anti-inflammatory properties rather than antibacterial. Antibiotics are effective at reducing papules, pustules, and inflammation. The limitation with antibiotics is that they are not effective at treating telangiectasia or flushing.
Antihistamines are effective at reducing facial inflammation, swelling and burning associated with rosacea. Histamine contributes to swelling, itching and burning. Histamine has also been shown to play a role in inflammation and redness.
Sunblock with Zinc Oxide
UV rays can penetrate the skin and activate sensory nerves that release potent vasodilators, as well as creating heat in the skin causing facial flushing. Zinc oxide reflects both UVA and UVB rays, blocking out heat from the sun. Topical zinc oxide also has significant healing properties when applied to damaged skin and has been shown to decrease inflammation in both the epidermis and dermis.
Dimethicone is a silicone based ingredient with moisturizing ability. Dimethicone is also a protective ingredient that has been shown to reduce flushing caused by skin irritants.
Free radicals have been shown to cause structural damage to vascular walls and many free radicals are potent blood vessel dilators. Dietary and topical antioxidants help to block the damaging effects of free radicals.
Studies show that vitamin C can protect blood vessel walls from free radical damage and reverse existing vascular damage. People with rosacea should get plenty of vitamin-C in their diet, and may want to consider a vitamin-C supplement. In addition to being a great antioxidant, topical vitamin-C has anti-inflammatory qualities.
*This post is intended for informational purposes only.
The use of topical antioxidants can help prevent wrinkles, reduce hyperpigmentation (sun spots), and improve skin tone. Topical antioxidants are available in many serums and moisturizer, formulations are available with a variety of antioxidants and strengths.
How Do Topical Antioxidants Work?
A free radical is any atom or molecule that is missing an electron from it’s outer shell, so it attacks an other molecule and steels an electron. The molecule that has been attacked by a free radicle, is now missing an electron and has become another free radical. This creates a chain reaction. Antioxidants stop the chain reaction, by giving an electron to the free radical.
Click to learn more about free radicals and antioxidants
Topical antioxidant stop the chain of reaction caused by free radicals. Free radicals are damaging to the skin and can accelerate extrinsic aging. Although some topical antioxidants are purely antioxidants, some have additional actions.
Topical antioxidants also help protect the skin from UV damage. Human studies have demonstrated protective effects of antioxidants when applied topically before ultraviolet radiation exposure. Antioxidants don’t work the same way that sunblocks do, so you still need a daily SPF. Sunblocks absorb or reflect out UV radiation and antioxidants neutralize the UV rays. Photoprotective topical antioxidants work by the inhibiting the UV-induced biochemical changes that lead to photoageing and DNA mutations.
Vitamin C is currently the most recognized topical antioxidant, however it works synergistically with other antioxidants such as vitamin E. There isn’t any one antioxidant that is effective on all free radicals, you need a variety of antioxidants. Each has a unique set of chemical behaviors and biological properties. Antioxidants work together as part of a network, and no single antioxidant can do the work a group. Some antioxidants may excel at fighting certain types of free radicals, or only work in certain parts of a cell. However, when it comes to topical antioxidants, there are some that are more stable and are better absorbed by the skin.
Types Of Topical Antioxidants
Vitamin C (L-ascorbic)
There are many derivatives vitamin C, however they don’t penetrate well. Look for products that contain L-ascorbic acid. Topical Vitamin C is the most popular topical antioxidant, and for good reason. In fact the benefits are so great, I will need to write an entire post devoted to topical vitamin C.
– Potent antioxidant
– Vitamin C is nessacerry to produce collagen
– Protects skin from both UVA and UVB, by neutralizing the UV rays.
– Can reduce sun – induced pigmentation, due to tyrosinase inhibitor function
– Anti- inflammatory qualities
Retinol ( Derived from Vitamin A )
– promotes healing
– promotes collagen synthesis, and inhibits cellular degeneration
– also increases epidermal thickness, and an emollient
Vitamin B3 ( Niacinamide)
– essential for cellular metabolism
– increases microcirculation
Vitamin E (Alpha Tocopherol)
When choosing a topical vitamin E product, look for a-tocopherol. Vitamin E derivatives such as (tocopherol acetate) are common in cosmetic ingredients, and although they are good as a moisturizing ingredient, they are not antioxidants.
– Protects cell membranes and lipid structures from free radical attack.
– Vitamin E is regenerated when it is in the presence of Vitamin C.
– Vitamin E doubled the UV protection in the skin when added to vitamin C.
– Inhibits the immunosuppression and tumorigenesis induced by ultraviolet radiation.
– Vitamin C can not scavenge lipo-philic radicals directly within the lipid phase, however vitamin C works synergistically with a- tocopherol to reduce lipid peroxide radicals.
– a plant antioxidant
– Increases L-ascorbic acid ( vitamin C) stability.
– synergistic with other antioxidants, specifically vitamin C and E.
A potent antioxidant derived from apples and root bark of fruit trees with a broad range of activity.
– Anti- inflammatory
– Accelerates cell renewal
– Pigment inhibitor
– Enhances product penetration
– has wound healing and anti-inflammatory ability’s
– UVB protection
Bioflavonoids are a group of substances that are potent antioxidants, many have anti-inflammatory ability and help protect from UV damage.
Centella Asiatica (Asiaticoside, Asiatic Acid, Madecassic Acid)
– promotes collagen synthesis, and inhibits cellular degeneration
– increases microcirculation
Camellia Sinensis Leaf Extract ( Green Tea Extract)
– protects cell from oxidative stress
– increases microcirculation in the cell
Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA)
-Alpha-lipoic acid is an antioxidant that is found in food and is made by the body. It is found in every cell, where it helps turn glucose into energy.
– ALA is both fat- and water-soluble.
Idebenone is a synthetic analog of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). CoQ10 is a vitamin-like natural compound found naturally in the body, that plays a pivotal role in the cellular energy production and as an antioxidant. Idebenone is closely related to CoQ10, however it is more water-soluble. Idebenone has been known as a pharmaceutical agent since the 1980’s, before it became popular as a skin care ingredient.
There are claims that idebenone is the most powerful topical antioxidant available, based on it’s EPF® rating. I have not been able to confirm that an “EPF” rating is an actual recognized rating, or verify the strength of antioxidants that were used in the EPF study. There are also studies that show that idebenone, offers less photoprotective value compared to topical vitamin C. I would like to find an independent study that compares L-ascorbic acid 20% to Idebenone 1%, until then it is hard to say which is truly the stronger antioxidant. Personally, I alternate between an Idebenone product and a topical vitamin C serum.
Topical Antioxidant Products
Skin Ceuticals Phloretin CF®
Phloretin (2%), vitamin C ( 10% L- ascorbic acid ) and ferulic acid (.5%)
Skin Ceuticals C E Ferulic®
Vitamin C (15% L-ascorbic acid), Vitamin E (1% alpha tocopherol), and ferulic acid (.5%)
Ferulic acid doubles the synergistic benefits of the vitamins C+E.
Obagi Professional-C Serums
Available in four concentrations of L-ascorbic acid .
20% Highest concentration of L-ascorbic acid
15% All skin types
10% Dry, sensitive or reactive skin
5% Protection for the sensitive eye area
Is Clinical Pro Heal Advanced Serum+
New time-released L ascorbic acid (in a 15 percent concentration) plus Copper Tripeptide Growth Factor maximize performance
Zinc Sulfate, Vitamin E ( Alpha Tocopherol), Retinol, Soluble Bioflavonoids
Olea Europea (olive leaf extract)- Synergistic with vitamins C and E, also antibiotic, anti-acneic, anti-inflammatory.
Mushroom Extract (a source of Kojic acid) – natural lightening to even pigment, antibacterial
Arbutin – corrects abnormal pigmentation by inhibiting tyrosinase enzyme.
IS Clinical Super Serum Advance+
New time-released L ascorbic acid (in a 15 percent concentration) plus Copper Tripeptide Growth Factor maximize performance.
Zinc Sulfate, Centella Asiatica
Pentapeptide Amino Acids – protein building blocks, increases cellular metabolism and integrity.
Mushroom Extract (a source of Kojic acid) – natural lightening to even pigment, antibacterial